Passengers suffered travel chaos today after a strike on London Underground caused gridlock on roads and massive disruption on Tubes and buses.
Queues built up at bus stops, Tube stations, river boat stops and on roads into the capital from before dawn.
Union leaders accused Transport for London (TfL) of under-estimating the impact of a 48-hour strike over controversial plans to close all Tube ticket offices.
Commuters complained of packed Tubes and buses as well as trains, as people switched to other forms of transport to get to work.
London Underground (LU) said it was operating train services on eight out of 11 lines despite the "completely unnecessary" strike.
Managing director Mike Brown said "Many thousands of LU and TfL staff are working hard to keep customers informed and ensure we keep London moving and open for business today."
Bob Crow, leader of the RMT union, said: "It does Londoners no favours to be told by London Underground that stations will be open, only to turn up and find the gates slammed shut.
"The unions said from the outset that if we were forced to take this action, with the cuts gun levelled at our heads, it would be solid with widespread and serious disruption, and that is exactly what has happened despite a stream of misleading and bogus information from TfL.
"Instead of pumping up ridiculous publicity stunts like the 'volunteer ambassador' nonsense, LU should be around the table with us settling this dispute which is simply about austerity cuts to jobs, safety and services."
Mr Crow and Manuel Cortes, leader of the TSSA union, accused London mayor Boris Johnson of refusing to meet them to discuss the ticket office closures.
But Mr Johnson continued to attack the strike, insisting LU was planning to increase staffing levels through modernising the Tube and getting rid of "antiquated" ticket offices.
"A deal is there to be done. I am more than happy to talk to Bob Crow if he calls off the pointless and unnecessary strike."
He continued to question the legitimacy of strike ballots if fewer than half of union members vote.
Some Conservatives have again been calling for changes to employment law to prevent transport strikes.
Members of the RMT and TSSA unions walked out at 9pm last night for 48 hours in protest at the closure of all ticket offices, with the loss of 950 jobs.
Services were hit last night immediately after the strike started, and disruption was widespread today.
Train passengers were also having problems because of a return to the wet and windy weather which has devastated travel across the UK.
Picket lines were mounted across the capital outside Tube stations, while the two sides in the dispute continued to argue over the ticket office closures.
Services return to normal on Friday but a nother 48-hour strike is planned from 9pm next Tuesday.
Business groups warned the strikes will cost London's economy tens of millions of pounds.
Mr Cortes said fewer than a third of normal Tube trains were running during this morning's rush hour with "overwhelming" support for the action from his members.
He said: "All we have is a fringe service in the outer suburbs with virtually the whole of central London dependent on a skeleton service.
"Over 70% of the normal service is at a standstill.
"It is now time to end government by gimmick and for Boris to enter serious talks.
"His so-called army of volunteers has turned out to be a phantom army as the scores of closed stations illustrate only too clearly.
"Londoners and the travelling public deserve better than this. We remain ready to talk immediately, any time, anywhere."
Mr Johnson told the Press Association: "We are doing all we can to try and get people to work. I recognise in some cases it is difficult, and I feel enormous sympathy for Londoners this morning, but the blame for this strike lies squarely with union leaders who have resorted to myths and stunts in a pathetic attempt to justify a strike that is utterly pointless.
"It's appalling that a tiny minority of union members have sought to disrupt the working lives of millions of Londoners today. It's clear that at a minimum we need a 50% strike threshold for a key public service like the mass transit system of our capital city.
"Tube modernisation is essential, and will actually mean there will be more, not less, members of staff on concourses and platforms to help passengers and keep commuters safe.
"These changes don't involve compulsory redundancies, will save millions that will be reinvested in the system, and are backed by over 80% of Londoners, and yet the unions have refused to properly engage with TfLs consultation, and walked away from Acas this week."