Teachers would have to be licensed and could be sacked if they fail tough checks on their abilities, under plans unveiled by Labour.
Shadow education secretary Tristram Hunt said the change would help give teachers the same standing as professionals such as doctors and lawyers.
A similar proposal was floated by the previous Labour government - and branded "classroom MoTs" by former schools secretary Ed Balls.
However, it was opposed by some teaching unions and dropped before the 2010 general election.
Mr Hunt told the BBC he wanted the "enormously important" role of teachers to be recognised.
"Just like lawyers and doctors they should have the same professional standing which means re-licensing themselves, which means continued professional development, which means being the best possible they can be," he said.
"If you're not a motivated teacher - passionate about your subject, passionate about being in the classroom - then you shouldn't really be in this profession."
Mr Hunt told The Times: "If we want to re-professionalise the teachers it would be crazy not to do it.
"If teachers are not re-licensed they will not be allowed to teach."
The Opposition has previously said it would insist on all teachers having Qualified Teacher Status, with staff already working in academies given a deadline to acquire a formal qualification.
A Conservative Party spokesman said it was willing to look any proposals which will "genuinely improve the quality of teaching".
He said: "We have already taken action by allowing heads to remove teachers from the classroom in a term, as opposed to a year previously, and scrapping the three-hour limit on classroom observations.
"We are improving teacher training, expanding Teach First and allowing heads to pay good teachers more. Thanks to our reforms, a record proportion of top graduates are entering the profession.
"Fixing the schools system so young people have the skills they need is a key part of our long-term economic plan."