A coroner has said lessons must be learned after he outlined a series of mistakes that led a US Apache helicopter to launch a deadly attack on a British base in Afghanistan.
Lance Corporal Christopher Roney, from Sunderland, died from head injuries suffered in the onslaught at Patrol Base Almas in Sangin, Helmand, on December 21, 2009.
Sunderland Coroner Derek Winter listed a series of errors made leading up to the tragedy. He said: "L/Cpl Christopher Roney died as a consequence of assumptions made, mistaken beliefs and cumulative failures by friendly forces."
He will write to Defence Secretary Philip Hammond and said "lessons must be learned".
The 3rd Battalion The Rifles soldier was fatally injured while manning a position during a fight with the Taliban after the enemy detonated a huge bomb. His platoon was holding off the attack when, without their knowledge, two US gunships were called in to help.
One fired 200 rounds into the base - despite the flagpole, machine gun, barbed wire and men in uniform - as the air crews were told it was an enemy position.
When British Army staff saw pictures beamed from a camera on an unmanned drone they misidentified the base as an enemy stronghold and guided the Apaches to the location, which was not on official maps.
Soldiers at Almas were firing mortar illumination to light up the battle zone, but this was detected on mortar-locating radar and mistaken as insurgents firing at the allies. Staff at another base watched the scenes unfolding on a camera system, but they failed to recognise Almas as its appearance had changed following the Taliban bomb.
The "total disorientation" led commanders to authorise the Apache crews to attack with 30mm chain gun fire, the coroner said. Mr Winter appreciated the conditions were "extremely challenging" but said the exemplary action under pressure by L/Cpl Roney and his comrades had not been matched by staff elsewhere.
In the aftermath of the attack, soldiers tried to rescue seven badly injured comrades and call off the Apaches. L/Cpl Roney was flown to Camp Bastion but died the next day.